Historical and Genealogical Sources for the Krosno Area

..........Web Page Author: Phyllis Kramer. Visitors:since March 2002. Updated October 2007

The Census of 1900 showed Krosno with a total population of 4410, composed of 961 Jews (Israelisch), 61 Griech. Katholisch and 3380 Rom. Katholisch. Neighboring towns with a large Jewish population included Czudec with a total population of 1214 (410 Jews), Niebylec 687 (343 Jews), Jedlicze 560 (125 Jews), Korczyna 5422 (1026 Jews) and Iwonicz 2775 (68 Jews). Krosno street

For most of the shtetls in the Krosno area, there are some Jewish records available in the local USCs (these are similar to record centers in the town hall); in Krosno, for instance, there are vital records from 1900 to 1942, in Zmigrod there are vital records dating back to the late 1880s (see the zmigrod page for the exact listing); there are also records in the Archives at Sanok.

The following list of current Galician records was taken from the wonderful guidebook
"Jewish Roots in Poland: Pages from the Past and Archival Inventories" by Miriam Weiner:

In Przemysl there are Notary records and in Lvov there are land records but they are not likely to easily yield jewish genealogical data.

Also see the Polish Geographical Dictionary, the 1891 polish business directory and the 1929 Krosno business directory.....(read on......)

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1891 Galician Business Directory

The 1891 Galician Business Directory contains many listings for Krosno. You can access it directly or see all the databases that JewishGen has combined in the Poland All Country Database.

Click here to visit the 1891 Galician Business Directory: The JewishGen 1891 Galician Business Database

or, better yet, click here to visit JewishGen's All Country Poland Database: The JewishGen all Country Poland Database
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1929 Business Directory:

for Krosno and some of the towns around Krosno.

The Business Directory of 1929 shows that Krosno Jews were not illiterate farmers, but included many tradesmen and well-educated professionals. Unfortunately this list only represents about 75% of the names. Those left out will be added when received. The original directory was written in polish and french; the translation into English was provided by the editor.

(Polish) Miasto, powiat, siedziba sadu powiatowego, sad okr, Jaslo, 10454 mieszk......
(French) Chef-lieu de distr., siege du trib. De diast, trib. D'arr-t Jaslo, 10454 habit. Rail ligne de Jaslo-Stroze. Autorites et services de l'Estat et autonomes: Starostie, Command-t de la police de distr., Bureau des Impots et contrib., Ciasse du tresor, Bureau du cadastre, Direction de la voirie, Office du placement, Inspection de l'enseignement, Municipalite, Office de diestr. Eglises et ecoles; 3 Cathol., couvents de Franciscains et de Capucins, gymnase, 2 ecoles normales d'instrituteurs, ecole de tissage, ecole profession complementaire. Institutions: Ciasse des malades de distr. Et pharmacie. Assoc. profess. Et corporations: Assoc. cath. Des commercants, assoc. des commercants, juifs, assoc. des aubergistes et cabaretiers, corps de metiers, corpor. des cordonniers et de bouchers-charcutiers, societe agricole regionale. Marches: le lundi. Foires: tous les 2 mois. Centre tres important de l'industrie petroliere: mines de petrole et extraction du gaz de terr, raffineries de petrole. Fabr. De machines, verreries, fonderie de cloches, filature, moulins, scierie, briqueteries.

The following is the beginning of an English translation...I will try to improve it with time :

  • District court: Jaslo.
  • Population 10,540.
  • Rail line from Jaslo to Stroze.
  • State Services: starostie?, Police, Tax Bureau, Treasury, ?, ?, Placement office,
  • Churches and Schools: 3 catholic churches, franciscan convert and Capucin convert, gymnasium (high school), 2 elementary schools, weaving school, professional school.
  • Institutions: Hospital and pharmacy
  • Associations and Corporations: Association of Catholic Merchants, Association of Merchants, Jews, ?, Trade Guilds, Bakers and Delis, Society of regional agriculture.
  • Market Day: Sunday
  • Fairs: Every two months.
  • An important center of the petroleum (oil) industry: mines, refineries.
  • Manufacturing: Machinery, ?, ?, windmills, ?, ?

The following trades and tradesmen were listed, first in Polish, and then in French; we have translated the trades into English (only surnames were extracted; company names were omitted). WYSZYNK TRUNKOW
Ader E AkuszerkiSages-femmesMedical Midwife
Ader J FryzjerzyCoiffeurs Hairdresser
Altholz MBizuterja Bijoutiers Jewelers
AltmanL Kuchenne naczyniaArt. De cuisineCooking Items
Amsterdam ChKuchenne naczyniaArt. De cuisineCooking Items
Argand IBizuterja Bijoutiers Jewelers
Balser R Nabial Cremiers Dairymen
BargielAnt Lekarze, SuchodolskaMedecinPhysician in Suchodola
BaumringJak Lekarze, KorczynskaMedecinPhysician in Korczyna
Beim S Blacharze Ferblantiers Tinsmith
Berger J Krawcy Tailleurs Tailors
Bergman SBudowlane przedsieb. Entrepr. De constructionsConstruction
Bergman JCegielnie Briqueteries Brickyard
BidusF KowaleForgerons Blacksmiths
BiederA Obuwie Chaussures Boot Dealer
Bienia S Mlyny Moulins Mills
Bobrowski T Geometrzy Geometres land surveyor
Bogacki Stef Drogerje DrogueriesChemist
Brejtowicz M Bydlo-handelMarch. De bestiauxCattle traders
BrozynaZofia Lekarze Dentysci, RynekDentistsDentist, inRynek
Buchholz A Lekarze Medecin Physician
Cwiertniak K Blawaty Tissus Fabrics
Czech S Agentury AgentsMerchandiseagent
Czerwienka J Fryzjerzy Coiffeurs Hairdresser
Dunikowski St. Dr Naftowe przedsiebiorstwaExploitations petrolieresGas Mine
Dym B Blawaty Tissus Fabrics
Dym P Maka Farines Meats
Dymnicki Stan Lekarze (gin) Medecin Physician
DzidekW Akuszerki, Suchodolska Sages-femmesMedical Midwife
Englender E >Piwo Beer bottler
Erlbaum J Blawaty Tissus Fabrics
ErtelCh Obuwie Chaussures Boot Dealer
Feiler R Forograficzne zakladyPhotographesPhotographer
Feilhart L Blawaty Tissus Fabrics
Feuerlicht M Jaja OeufsEgg merchant
Feuerlicht J Nabial Cremiers Dairymen
Findberg S Blawaty Tissus Fabrics
Finpowicz F KamasznicyTiges p. ChaussuresLeather for Shoes
Fischbein B Blawaty Tissus Fabrics
Fischbein D Krawcy Tailleurs Tailors
Fiszbein R Galanterja Merceries Haberdasher
Frankel S GalanterjaMerceries Haberdasher
Friedman B Apteki Pharmacies Pharmacist
Gabanski - Mechaniczne warsztatyMecaniciens Mechanic
Galkar - Nafta Petrole Gas
Gartner E Krawcy Tailleurs Tailors
Gebel M Krawcy Tailleurs Tailors
Gierucki F Konie - handelMarchands de chavauxHorseTrader
Gizik J KowaleForgerons Blacksmiths
Gleicher N Blawaty Tissus Fabrics
Gleicher A Galanterja MerceriesHaberdasher
Gluch F Galanterja MerceriesHaberdasher
Goldsztein A Krawcy Tailleurs Tailors
Goldsztein S Krawcy Tailleurs Tailors
Halpern R Galanterja MerceriesHaberdasher
Hirschfeld A Bizuterja Bijoutiers Jewelers
Hirsprung LObuwie Chaussures Boot Dealer
Hirszfeld N Cegielnie Briqueteries Brickyard
Hirszfeld S Meble Meubles Furniture
Horowitz M Blawaty Tissus Fabrics
Janocha F Obuwie Chaussures Boot Dealer
Janowska S Drogerje Drogueries Chemist
Jurys A Krawcy Tailleurs Tailors
Just H Nafta Petrole Gas
Kanner A AgenturyAgents MerchandiseAgent
Kanner Galanterja MerceriesHaberdasher
Kaska R Fotograficzne przybory Fournitures pour la photographie Photography Equipment
Kaska R Forograficzne zakladyPhotographesPhotographer
KatzKBudowlane materjalyMateriaux de constructionConstruction materials
Katz Drzewo Bois Wood for Heating
Kaufman M Blawaty Tissus Fabrics
Kaufman W. J. Blawaty Tissus Fabrics
Kazalski St. Nierogucizna - handel March. De porcsPigTraders
Keil J Czapnicy Fabr. De casquettesCap Maker
Kleinberger J Blawaty Tissus Fabrics
Kleiner M Obuwie Chaussures Boot Dealer
Kleinman L Krawcy Tailleurs Tailors
Kliniec J Ciesle Charpentiers Carpenter
Klotz Ch Krawcy Tailleurs Tailors
Kolko rolnicze Kooperatywy Cooperatives Cooperative
Korb Ch Kuchenne naczyniaArt. De cuisineCooking Items
KornreichA Blacharze Ferblantiers Tinsmith
Krajewski M Lekarze Medecin Physician
Krukierek SFryzjerzy Coiffeurs Hairdresser
Krukierek J Mlyny Moulins Mills
Kubit J Ciesle Charpentiers Carpenter
KukierekJBetonowe wyrobyFabr de produits en betonConcrete Maker
Kuliga F Krawcy Tailleurs Tailors
Kutek A Bednarze Tonneliers Cooper
Kwasny J Krawcy Tailleurs Tailors
Lam O Krawcy Tailleurs Tailors
Landau D Nafta Petrole Gas
Lang Ch Krawcy Tailleurs Tailors
Lenik W Drukarnie Imprimeries Printer
Lenik K Koszykarze VanniersBasketmaker
Lenik W Ksiegarnie Librairies Book dealer
Leser H Blawaty Tissus Fabrics
Lewicki Z Lekarze (chir) Medecin Physician
LieberIBudowlane materjaly Materiaux de construction Construction materials
Lindenberg E Blawaty Tissus Fabrics
Lorens A Lekarze, Rynek MedecinPhysician, in Rynek
Majerowicz O Galanterja Merceries Haberdasher
Mankowski B Budowlane przedsieb. Entrepr. De constructions Construction
Margiel Ch Blawaty Tissus Fabrics
Margulies MEkspedycyjne biura Expediteurs Shippers
Maslyk J Mlyny Moulins Mills
Mechel D Blacharze Ferblantiers Tinsmith
Mende W CzapnicyFabr. De casquettesCap Maker
Metzger R CzapnicyFabr. De casquettesCap Maker
Miesowicz M BizuterjaBijoutiers Jewelers
Mieszkowski J Apteki Pharmacies Pharmacist
Mikos T Krawcy Tailleurs Tailors
Mrugala FrMaszyny Machines Machinery
Mrugala F Muzyczne instrumenty Instruments de musique Musical instruments
Munz Ad Mechaniczne warsztaty MecaniciensMechanic
Munz A Mosieznicy Dinandiers mfgr or dealer in copper products
Musial J Geometrzy Geometres land surveyor
Musial W Hotele Hotels Hotels
Musial W JadlodajnieRestaurants Restaurants
Nagiel T Krawcy Tailleurs Tailors
Neuman M Blawaty Tissus Fabrics
NiepokojJ Cegielnie Briqueteries Brickyard
Nord S Galanterja Merceries Haberdasher
Nowak J Mlyny Moulins Mills
NowakiewiczKBron ArmuriersArmor Makers
Nussbaum W Galanterja Merceries Haberdasher
Odzynski RMechaniczne warsztatyMecaniciens Mechanic
Olechowski J Krawcy Tailleurs Tailors
Oling S Kuchenne naczyniaArt. De cuisineCooking Items
Orzechowski J Ciesle Charpentiers Carpenter
Paczosa W Mlyny Moulins Mills
Patla J Kowale Forgerons Blacksmiths
PelczanskaA Akuszerki, Suchodolska Sages-femmesMedicalMidwife
Pinkas J Blacharze Ferblantiers Tinsmith
Pinkas JKuchenne naczynia Art. De cuisineCooking Items
Pleznar JKsiegarnie Librairies Book Dealer
Plodzien I Bandazysci Bandagistes mfgr of Surgical Bandages
Podwale Budowlane przedsieb.Entrepr. De constructionsConstruction
Polski Bank Przemyslowy Banki BanquesBank
Prokopik P FryzjerzyCoiffeurs Hairdresser
Ptak K Akuszerki Sages-femmesMedical Midwife
Pudelko J Kowale Forgerons Blacksmiths
Ringler A Obuwie Chaussures Boot Dealer
Robaczynski S CukiernieConfiseurs Confectioner
Rossler NKuchenne naczynia Art. De cuisine Cooking Items
Rossler P Kuchenne naczyniaArt. De cuisineCooking Items
Roth H Krawcy Tailleurs Tailors
Rubenfeld L Cukry Bonbons Candies
Rubin M Maka FarinesMeats
Rucki A Nierogucizna - handel March. De porcsPigTraders
Rypien J Blawaty Tissus Fabrics
Sagan I Kowale Forgerons Blacksmiths
Schamroth S MaszynyMachines Machinery
Scheiner N Galanterja Merceries Haberdasher
Schmalz B Hotele Hotels Hotels
Schmalz B Jadlodajnie Restaurants Restaurants
Schmutz N Blawaty Tissus Fabrics
Serwa Br Fryzjerzy Coiffeurs Hairdresser
Siatecka HAkuszerki Sages-femmes Medical Midwife
Siegel Z Lekarze Medecin Physician
Singer P Krawcy Tailleurs Tailors
Slaczka Ant Lekarze, pow. Medecin Physician
Sladtfeld Ch Krawcy Tailleurs Tailors
Slomiak A Kaflarze Carreleurs ?
Solecki J Murarze Macons Mason
Spindler M Malarze Peintres Painters
SteigbugelH Galanterja Merceries Haberdasher
Stein SKuchenne naczynia Art. De cuisineCooking Items
Steinbugel M Obuwie Chaussures Boot Dealer
Steinmetz H Meble Meubles Furniture
Stiehl Jonas Lekarze, Franciszkanska MedecinPhysician
Storch SGalanterja Merceries Haberdasher
Suchon W Akuszerki, PodwaleSages-femmesMedical Midwife
Swietnicki J Malarze Peintres Painters
Szeligowska A Krawcy Tailleurs Tailors
Szubra S Murarze Macons Mason
Tabisel HBudowlane materjalyMateriaux de constructionConstruction materials
Tabiszel H Drzewo BoisWood for Heating
Teich M Krawcy Tailleurs Tailors
Tepege s.a.Maszyny - fabrykiFabr de machinesMachine Parts(?)
Tepper A Galanterja Merceries Haberdasher
Tomaszewski SBlacharzeFerblantiersTinsmith
Trattner MKuchenne naczynia Art. De cuisine Cooking Items
TrenczerLBydlo-handelMarch. De bestiaux Cattle traders
Trenczner CzObuwie Chaussures Boot Dealer
Usiejowa M Krawcy Tailleurs Tailors
Weinfeld I Obuwie Chaussures Boot Dealer
Weisner DBudowlane materjaly Materiaux de constructionConstruction materials
Weisner D.I Drzewo Bois Wood for Heating
Weissman S Cukry Bonbons Candies
Weissman M Ekspedycyjne biuraExpediteurs Shippers
Weklar M Akuszerki Sages-femmesMedical Midwife
Wilf L Miod Miel Honey
Wilk J Cegielnie Briqueteries Brickyard
Wilk K Krawcy Tailleurs Tailors
Wilk J Murarze Macons Mason
Wojnar M.R. Krawcy Tailleurs Tailors
Wojtynkiewicz W Apteki Pharmacies Pharmacist
Wozniak Lekarze Medecin Physician
Wysocki F InstalacjeAjusteurs Arbiter, adjuster
Wysocki F Mechaniczne warsztatyMecaniciens Mechanic
Zajdel JBetonowe wyrobyFabr de produits en betonConcrete Maker
Zuzak F Malarze Peintres Painters

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How to Trace Your Town via the Polish Geographical Dictionary --an example for Wrocanka, 4 miles SSE of Krosno

Prior to the advent of civil registration (required by Austrian law in the late 1700s, but not adhered to in Galicia until the early 1800s), information regarding the inhabitants can often be found by looking at town records. Especially in the cases of those towns that were "owned" by nobility, the town records still exist, and sometimes contain treasure troves of information regarding the inhabitants. These records exist in the Polish Geographical Dictionary, copies of which are at the New York Public Library and the Library of Congress; microfilms of these volumes are also available through the Mormon Family History Centers. I would suggest, if you wish to find information from "your" shtetl in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, by researching the Polish Geographical Dictionary, that you begin with the Fall 2000 issue of Avotaynu.

The following was taken from Avotaynu's Fall 2000 Issue (Avotaynu: The International Review of Jewish Genealogy, published by Gary Mokotoff) . In this issue various Jewish Genealogical Resources are examined. One of the articles was entitled "Tips on Translating Entries from Slownik nGeograficzny" by William F. Hoffman; this article originally appeared in the May 2000 issue of Rodziny, the Journal of the Polish Genealogical Society of America.

"If f one had to name the one Polish-language source most often consulted and translated by Polish-American genealogical researchers, it surely would be the Slownik Geografizcny ... (Geographical Dictionary of the Kingdom of Poland...16 volumes, 1880-1904). Eventually, research requires locating the town or village one's ancestors came from...Let us look at some samples....for a village in Galicia.

In fact, this entry is for two villages with the same name, which illustrates a point you must understand to use the Slownik well; many, many place names are not unique. If there is one village called X, there may be 5 or 10 or 20 with the same name. You must have aditional details-the name of the gmina or powiat or province it was in, the nearest large town....-or you will have no way of knowing which X marks the spot for you! Here there are two places named Wroncanka..."

"Wrocanka (1) a village in Jaslo county, on a small tributary of the Jasiolka from the left bank, 3.5 miles south of Tarnowiet (parish and railroad statiion between Jaslo and Krosno). With the landed estate (of Konst. Pilinski) it has 104 houses and 574 Roman Catholic inhabitants. The landed estate has an area of 494 morgs, half farmland and half forest, and the minor estate has 708 morgs of land. In 1581 (Pawinski, malopolska) it was the property of Salowski..."

"W[rocanka], a village in Krosno county, on the right bank of the Jasiel, elevation 312 meters above sea level, 4.3 km. West of Miejsce and 8.3 km southeast of Krosno. Near Wrocanka the roads to Rymanow and Dukla cross. With the landed estate it has 153 houses and 833 Roman Catholic inhabitants......Wrocanka was once a village owned by the king, settled on the basis of German law, and it was originally settled by Germans. In the 1665 Sanok district inspection report...we read: The owner of this village is His Excellency Stanislaw Zawisza, jointly with Her Excellency Konstancya of Kozieglowa, his spouse, with a degree of consent received of King Jan Kazimierz and dated Warsaw on 14 January 1651...In this village there are 7 peasants settled....The manorial farmstead's yield.........the sum on which the kwarta is to be paid to the Crown treasury, under the debts described in the common law....The wooden church existing today was built in 1770. The village ...belongs to the parish (in the diocese of Przemysl, deanery of Krosno). It borders on the south with Rowne, on the east with Rogi and Miejsce, on the northwith Glowienka and on the west with Nizna Laka.

Fascinating, isn't it? Again, the details are to be found in Avotaynu's Fall 2000 Issue (Avotaynu: The International Review of Jewish Genealogy, published by Gary Mokotoff) . For more information about Avotaynu, visit their web site at http://www.avotaynu.com
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JewishGen Family Finder

Do you have roots in Krosno or the surrounding area??? Would you like to connect with others researching the same community? Click the button to search the JewishGen Family Finder database. If you are not already registerred with JewishGen, please do so. It's free and painless! and that way you can add the surnames you are researching to the list, so that others can find you!!

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William Leibner - Korczyna & Zmigrod

My GGGGF, Ephraim or Froim ( Yiddish version of Ephraim) Leibner Halevi was born in Western Galicia, Poland. He made a living by tending to the local markets and fairs where he sold or bought clothing. The items were then repaired, dyed if necessary and resold at the next market. Life was difficult for the Jew had to pay everywhere fees and purchase permits in addition to the regular taxes that were imposed on Jews. He was married to Rachela and they had a son named Shragai Feibish Leibner (the combination of these first names was very popular among Jews in Europe and they signify light) was born in Korczyna, Galicia in 1821. We have not been able to establish whether Shragai Feibish had brothers or sisters, although there are several Leibner families in the area. He continued his fatherís occupation. He went from market to market, selling and buying clothing and furs that were then fixed, repaired, dyed and resold. He married Sheindel Gross a native of Korczyna. They soon gave birth to Nathan Nuta (Nussan as pronounced in Yiddish) halevi Leibner. He was born on April 18,1843. Then the family gave birth to Esther Leibner and Rachel Yette Leibner in Korczyna in 1853. Nathan went to cheder and learned to be a Jew. He also helped the parents with the clothing business. The girls also helped their mother and assisted with the business. Sheindel (Gross )Leibner died at a very young age and Shragai Feibish remarried. His second wife was Chana Gittel Grau. She was born in Korczyna in 1833 and will die in the hamlet in 1891. To the best of our knowledge, there were no children of this marriage. Nathan continued to work with his father and also studied a bit of torah at the local synagogue. Matchmakers soon began to visit the Leibner home and a match was found for Nathan Leibner. Her name was Pearl Feige Tzimet from Zmigrod, near Jaslo. Her parents were Joel or Julius and Gittel Yente Tzimet. of Zmigrod. The Tzimets were a well-established and large family in Zmigrod. The young couple took up residence in the hamlet of Zmigrod and Nathan continued the family business tradition. Esther Leibner was also married to Wolf Beer in Korczyna and so was Rachel Yetta to Yehiel Aaron Weinberger. The latter used the name Leibner. Pearl Leibner gave birth to Ephraim Leibner in 1868, named in honor of Nathanís grandfather. She then gave birth to Sheindel Leibner on April 30 1873, named in honor of Nathanís mother. Complications set in and Pearl Tzimet Leibner passed away leaving Nathan Leibner with two small infants and a business. Nathan called on his sister Esther to come to Zmigrod to help him. She was recently widowed and there were no children. She closed everything and left Korczyna for Zmigrod. She did say goodbye to her father Shragai Feibish who was still living in Korczyna and to her sister Rachel Yette Leibner-Weinberger and her family. In 1875, Nathan Leibner married Reisel (later Rose) Achtsam and they had nine children of whom six survived:
Menachem Mendel Shaul Leibner called Mendel for short, b. Oct 1876 in Zmigrod, d.Jan 26,1926 in NYC
Rachel Leibner b. February 11th 1879 in Zmigrod
Burech Leibner b. Oct 18,1881 and died within days in Zmigrod.
Joseph, M (Morris) Leibner b. in 1885 in Zmigrod
Emma Leibner b.1886 in Zmigrod, and
Etta Leibner b. in 1892 in the USA.

Nathan Leibner struggled to make a living and maintain his large family. Poverty and oppression were the lot of the Jew in these hamlets. Nathan decided to leave Europe and arrived in NYC on March 15,1886. He started to peddle merchandise from door to door. He then brought over Rose and the children to the USA in 1888. His sister refused to leave Zmigrod and refused to send the older children to the USA. Letters went back and forth and finally Esther send Sheindel or Jenny to the States where she later married Harry Krill and Mendel Shaul Leibner. Ephraim Leibner she kept in Zmigrod so that she would have a ď kaddish sayerĒ when she will pass away. Rachel Yette Leibner and Aaron Weinberger in Korczyna had also a large family but many children died in infancy, the survivors were: Fradel, Lea,Itzhak and Ephraim Yehiel Leibner. The patrich of the family Shragai Feibish Leibner passed away in Korczyna in 1913.

Nathan applied for citizenship and was naturalized in 1900. He also left peddling and went into the fish business. He established Mother's Fish Products and their labels appear to this day on various products in the supermarkets. In Zmigrod, Ephraim Leibner lived with his aunt Esther and continued tending to markets. He married Shprince Findling, member of a large family in Zmigrod. The family grew with the arrival of several children. Then the sad news arrived from the USA that Rose died On January 14th, 1905. Nathan married again in 1906, he chose Anna Cohen. They gave birth to a son, Sidney Leibner who was born on Oct.10th, 1910 in NYC. Nathan Leibner died on December 15th, 1929 in NYC. Anna Leibner died on Feb 18th,1944. Rose Leibner, Mendel Leibner, Nathan Leibner and Anna Leibner are buried at Washington cemetery in the Zmigroder section. All members of Ephraim Leibnerís family were killed in the shoa except for Pauline Leibner who left for the USA where she married Philip Klein and Jacob Leibner who married Serl Lang in Krosno.
For more information, email Bill Leibner, Jerusalem, Israel Return to Table of Contents

For more information, email Bill Leibner, Jerusalem, Israel Return to Table of Contents

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Alexander Bialywlos-White, Krosno

We are indeed fortunate to find Alexander Bialywlos-White, a native of Krosno. He has supplied this web site with many of the Rabbi Twerskir wonderful photographs of Krosno people. The photograph below is a wonderful example...it portrays Rabbi Moshe Twerski of Krosno, with Chesidim.

Alexander told us a little of himself and his family:
My name is Alexander Bialywlos-White; I was born June 1923 to Mendel Bialywlos and Leah Platner-Bialywlos. My siblings were Mania (Miriam)Bialywlos born 1922, Schlomo (Salomon) Bialywlos born 1925, and Heniek (Chaim Hirsch) Bialywlos born 1931, all born in Krosno.

Most of my family were killed by the Nazis. My mother and sister were shot by the Nazis in 1942 together with a number of other Jewish people from the Ghetto in Krosno which included the Rabbi Schmuel Fuehrer. My Father died in Auschwitz May 1944 where he was evacuated to from the Krakow-Plaszow CC during the so called "naked parade". My brother Schlomo was shot in the Ghetto of Jaslo in February 1943, where he was working with a group of others in cleaning up and sorting the clothes left from the Jews "resettled" to the Belzec Extermination Camp. My brother Heniek was killed in Auschwitz in the summer of 1943 where he was sent after the liquidation of the Rzeszow Ghetto. He had been sent to the Rzeszow Ghetto upon liquidation of the Krosno Ghetto Dec 4, 1942. I myself survived at Schindler's camp in Bruennlitz, Sudetenland.

Today I am in contact with some cousins from the area. First is Moniek (Mike) Fruhman who lives in Melbourne, and his brother Mark (Mociu) Fruhman from Manchester,England. And then, of coure, my cousin Rifka Platner who lives in Tel Aviv (now Rifka Rand).

For more information, please email Alexander Bialywlos-White

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Debbie Raff, Korczyna

Surnames: RAFF / SICHERMAN/ MEISNER/ KATZ / FISCH / GRUNSPANN / GREENSPAN / EICHNER / ZWICK / HILLER from Zmigrod Nowy / Bukowsko / Dukla / Dynow / Korczyna, Poland.

Great-Great Grandparents: Aron and Itte KATZ, who were day laborers in Korczyna. They had at least one child. Her name was Chaje (Chaya) Sara and she was my great-grandmother.

For More Information, email Debbie Raff, Calif.
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Goldman, Genealogy - Korczyna

Dawid GOLDMAN married Minnie MARGOLES ( born circa. 1861). They had 6 children, born in Korczyna: Izzy, Jack, Hilda, Anna Harry and Louis.

According to his birth certificate, Louis was born Jan 23, 1880 in Korczyna, in House #641. He married Fanny Stecher in December of 1912 in NYC. Fanny was born Dec 21, 1894 at 275 Rivington Street in NYC. Louis died in NY on Apr 27, 1976

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FEIT Families - by Bette Stoop Mas

(Bette's Feit family is from Blizne, Jasienica and Krosno) dec 2013

Virtually all of the Feit families who immigrated to the United States since the mid-1880s from Austria /Poland are Jewish and originated from about 73 villages and towns in the southeastern corner of Poland. Most of these villages are clustered around Brzozow, Sanok, and Krosno and extend northward for about 60 miles along the River San Ė including Przemysl (near the border with Ukraine), Lezajsk, Rudnik, Nisko, Tarnobrzeg, Rozwadow and Radomysl. Other Feits branches stem from Rymanow and Jasienica Rosielna.

Galician Jews adopted fixed hereditary surnames after the 1787 law of Kaiser Joseph II. Based on data extracted from hundreds of documents and databases, marriage and death certificates, naturalization records and information from Feit descendants, I have been creating family trees and searching for common ancestors to link together as many branches as possible. With a focus on older generations, my file now contains more than 8,000 individuals, with many name duplications, in 380 unconnected branches. The earliest known birth date is 1800 (Jacob Feit) and more than 1,500 individuals have known or estimated birth dates before 1900. Additional clues from descendants and Polish records are needed to merge more branches.

The tree of the Feit brothers Isidore and Jacob from Krosno, Rymanow, Trzesniow and Brzozow contains 399 individuals. Two FEIT Family Tree Project reports are available upon request. The database contains more than 1,200 different surnames. A FEIT Family Photo Album was also created.

For more information, please email me by clicking my name Bette Stoop Mas.
December 2013

Jack Nagel, born in KrosnoWall Street Journal nov 2018

Jack Nagal "lost his youth and most of his family to the Holocaust...He died Oct 12 in Los Angeles at the age of 96, survived as a property developer for some of the same reasons he survived concentration camps: He kept a reserve of cash to cover the unexpected, and he knew when to grab an opportunity".

"His wealth allowed him to contribute to Jewish causes, including the Simon Wiesenthal Center, where he served as a trustee."

"Jan Jakub Nagel, the oldest of four children, was born Dec. 7, 1921 in Krosno, Poland. His father was a landlord and part owner of a lumber mill....when Germany invaded Poland in September 1939, the family loaded up a horse-drawn wagon and set off for Romania, only to turn back after finding the roads clogged....Eventually young Jan and his father paid smugglers to guide them to refuge in Bardejov, Slovakia"

"In early 1945 he was shuffled to a camp near Dachau and put to work building underground bunkers. In May the Americans arrived. An African-American soldier "the first black person we ever saw" told them the war was over...his father, mother and brothers were dead. Eventually he found his sister Gloria in Sweden."

"He is survived by his wife, his sister, four children, 15 grandchildren and 11 great grandchildren"
A remarkable story.

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The Akselrads

by Bertha Eisenstein (nee Akselrad) and translated by William Leibner, Jerusalem,27/4/2008

Translators note: The story you are about to read was written in Hebrew by a surviving daughter of Bendet Akselrad of Korczyna and Krosno. The family was well established and had extensive roots and history in Korczyna and vicinity. It contributed heavily to the Jewish community and provided leaders for the Jewish community of Korczyna and Krosno for several generations until these communities and their Jewish inhabitants were destroyed by the Germans during WWII.

Bendet Akselrad born on April 14th 1886 and killed on July 15th 1943 at the Szebnie concentration camp in Poland. He was the head of the Jewish community in Krosno for many years and also served as the head of the Korczyna Jewish community.

Cila Axelrad nee Freifeld, wife of Bendet Akselrad. She was born in 1888 and killed in Krosno, Galicia in 1943

My father was Bendet Akselrad head of the Jewish communities of Korczyna and Krosno, Galicia, Poland. He was married to Cila Freifeld and they had five sons and a daughter. My oldest brother was Shmuel who was born in 1909 and married to Klara Rosenberg from Debice and they had a daughter named Irenka born in 1935. My second brother was Shalom born in 1911. The third brother Avraham was born in 1922. The fourth brother was Yehuda born in 1924 and the fifth brother was Levy born in 1930. I, Bertha Akselrad was born on the 24th of Mai 1932.

I will presently try to describe the family as far as my memories permit it since I was a small youngster at the time as my birthday indicates. The family revolved about my father who was devoted to the community. He was a gentle person who had a great deal of patience and listened to everybody who came to the house with a problem and the Jews of Krosno and Korczyna had many problems mainly survival problems in a sea of anti-Semitic environment.

As a child I loved the Jewish holidays of Purim, Passover and Friday nights. My father always brought home dinner guests from the synagogue that joined us at the table and shared our meals. Dinners were always interlaced with conversations and discussions. To this day, people that knew my father praise him for his patience, understanding and assistance in solving problems. These people describe to me in great detail his deeds that were unknown to me. These comments make me feel proud of my parents and family.

They also helped me to better understand my father since the people in question dealt with him personally while I was a mere child on the sidelines. Many influential Polish gentiles visited our home and discussed ways and means to avoid or smooth sore spots within the Krosno community amongst Jews and Christians. The Polish population was very anti-Semitic and the slightest incident could turn into a major riot or a pogrom as often happened in the country. The Jews wanted to avoid confrontations at any costs and merely desired to continue with their life that was very difficult for they were discriminated at every step of the way. Even gifted Jewish youth could only dream about positions or jobs in governmental or public offices. Anti-Semitism was deeply embedded amongst the polish population and was even transferred from generation to generation with minor changes.

Father devoted most of his time to the community and considered this task to be his "raison d'etre" or essence of life. He left his various businesses in Krosno to his older sons while he devoted himself to the needs of the Jewish population. The oldest sons Shmuel and Shlomo graduated the school of commerce and administration and managed the various family businesses. Bendet Akselrad was also a graduate of this school. Schooling was very limited to Jews and some trades or professions were closed to Jewish students and in some instances a few Jewish students were admitted as a token of Jewish presence. Mother also helped my father since she received the people who came to the house while father was not at home. She spoke to the visitors and made notations that were relayed to father on his arrival. My brother and I also had important jobs for we ran to open the door whenever the bell rang. Many of the family discussions revolved around the impending war and my parents and older brothers were very perturbed by the news events of the day. I was terrified and expected the worst especially when I heard the screechings of Hitler on the radio. I had bad feelings but did not really understand what was happening.

The Polish-German war started in September of 1939 and my brother Shalom was immediately drafted at night and I was unable to say good-bye to him. Time passed and we heard nothing from Shalom. Then a Pole came to our house and told the family that my brother was seriously injured in his legs and is treated at a hospital in Stanislawow, Eastern Galicia. Of course, he received a nice reward for the information. Father took with him Avraham and Yehuda and they left the house in the direction of the city where Shalom was supposedly convalescing. He left the community affairs in the hands of Shmuel, his oldest son. They soon arrived to Stanislawow and discovered the hoax. Shalom Axelrad was not in the city. But they did meet many Jews from Krosno who fled to this area prior to the arrival of the Germans. The Akselrads decided to return home but Russian forces now occupied Stanislawow as part of the partition of Poland by Germany and Russia. It took some doing and they managed to reach Krosno. Here a postal card awaited him from his son Shalom who was a prisoner of war in a German camp. Shalom continued to send postal cards and in one of them he informed us that he will soon be sent home. Our joy was boundless.

Father was very busy with the community and was assisted by his elder sons. The city of Krosno had received many Jewish refugees from many places who needed help and temporary lodgings. The Jewish economic situation in the city was very bad for many Jewish businesses were confiscated and Jews were not permitted to circulate freely in the city. The situation worsened with each day, a white armband with a Star of David had to be worn, anti-Jewish rules and regulations appeared daily. The situation assumed alarming proportions and my father and brothers barely coped with the situation. They tried to help with whatever they could and the Jews needed all the help that they could get. The fact that father and brothers spoke fluently German for the family lived for many years in Vienna and had Austrian citizenship, gave them the ability to use the language to help the Jews of Krosno.

The Germans refused to deal with Jews and especially those that did not speak German. Every demand had to be written and submitted to the Germans in their language. The Akselrads were busy drafting and writing all kinds of requests for the Jews of Krosno. They also had to follow up these requests and I saw my father's face when he returned with a negative answer. Although I was small, I began to hear strange and meaningless but frightening words like concentration camps, ghetto, searches, and Gestapo. I did not understand these words but feared them for they were uttered in fright. I began to mature rapidly as children do in such special circumstances.

One evening father came home and I saw the sadness in his eyes. Mother told me that they wanted to talk to me privately. Father told me that he found a special place for me with a fine Polish family that wanted to take me to their house. He told me that they would like me very much. I listened seriously but did not really understand what was taking place. Mother packed a bag with clothing. The next evening, my brother Shalom took me to the family. During the walk he explained to me how to behave in the new home and to be a good and obedient girl. He instructed me to listen and fulfill all the commands of the new family. He also told me that I now have a new name that I must use. Furthermore, you must not cry or ask to return home. We shall visit you when we can. Parting was very sad, I saw the tears in my brother's eyes and I barely restrained myself from crying. Still we parted sadly and I entered the new home.

The family was very happy to receive me. I saw a grand father, a grand mother where I will remain in hiding for the duration of the entire war. My parents and my brothers occasionally visited me except for Avraham. The later went one day to buy bread and disappeared never to be seen again. The family visits continued and then suddenly they stopped. My mother Cila Akselrad went to purchase food where she was caught and shot in 1943. My father Bendet Akselrad was shot on July 15th 1943 in the concentration camp of Szebnie. My brother Shmuel, his wife Clara, their daughter Irenka, and Shalom Akselrad were caught in Warsaw with faked Aryan papers and killed. Avraham Akselrad survived the concentration camps and managed to reach New York where he passed away in 1991 after a lengthy illness. He never established a family. My brother Yehuda Akselrad joined the partisans and fought with them until 1943 when he was killed in the vicinity of Warsaw. My brother Lewy was killed in Krosno in 1943. Thus, I was the sole survivor of the family in Krosno and lived with the Polish family.

I missed my parents and brothers and kept dreaming about them. I saw them almost every night in my dreams and was very happy only to awaken to the bitter reality that I was alone. I was very sad since I wanted the dream to continue but to no avail. I remained in the house with grandfather and grandmother while the couple went to work. I helped in the house with everything that I could since I tried to please everybody in the family. I was always afraid that I may be kicked out of the house. This fear lingered on and frequently prevented me from sleeping. Slowly and steadily I became attached to the Christian family.

The war ended in 1945 and nobody came to take me home. The entire family apparently was killed and nobody was left except for myself. I was very sad when at the age of thirteen I became aware that I was the only survivor of the entire family. This was also the year that I had to start school for the first time and I wanted to be like all the other children, namely Christian. I wanted to be accepted and not shunted. The family encouraged me in that direction. Presently I loved the family and was very attached to it. I went to the priest in Krosno and asked to be baptized. He was very surprised and told me that he knew my father. He asked whether there were any survivors in the family and I replied that I was the sole survivor. The priest baptized me on September 5th 1945 and the same month I started school for the first time. I was admitted to the seventh grade in the elementary school for which I was prepared by a private teacher since I had to make up a great deal of schooling. I was a very diligent student and loved to go to school and to study. I made many friends and wanted to be accepted. I tried to make up for all the lost time that I was locked up. I finished elementary school and received a certificate. I was registered to continue schooling next year meanwhile I enjoyed the summer recess during which time I met my friends and took trips with them.

One day, my brother Avraham was informed that I survived the war and lived in Krosno. He came to Krosno with Yehoshua Drucker, captain in the Polish Army. The latter devoted himself to searching surviving Jewish children who lived with Polish families and returning them to surviving members of the family or to place the children in a Jewish orphanage. I did not want to join my brother since I was attached to my new family and did not want to leave them. My brother sensed my decision and decided to petition the court (for custody since I was still a minor). The judge ordered me to stay for two weeks at the Jewish orphanage with my brother Avraham. The orphanage was at Zabrze and I was very homesick and wrote letters to the adopted family but never received a reply. They also wrote letters to me but I did not receive them. The orphanage knew that the Poles will try to return me to the family so they stopped all correspondence between us. Shortly thereafter, I was sent to France with a transport of Polish Jewish children. I remained in France for two years and then we went to Israel in 1948. I was sent to the agricultural school "Mikveh Israel" and in 1950 I joined the army. In 1953 I married and raised a family. I have two sons and 4 grandchildren. I live in a private home at Kiriat Ono and tend to my garden and floors. I spent my time attending lectures and reading books.

Bertha Akselrad in 1946 in France at the orphanage. She is the author of the short family story. Dated 1/4/08 Signed Batia Eisenstein nee Akselrad

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My New Parents

by Batia (nee Akselrad) Eisenstein
Translated from Hebrew by William Leibner
July 2008

I was born on May 5, 1932, in Krosno, Galicia, Poland. My parents were Bendet and Cila nee Freifeld Akselrad. I had five older brothers. I was the sheltered baby of the family and their worries about my well being greatly increased with the German occupation of the town. The Jewish economic situation in Krosno went from bad to worse with each day. My parents decided to seek shelter for me with a non-Jewish family named Krukierek. Our family was well acquainted with this family whose sons worked at our sawmill in Krosno. The family responded positively to the inquiries.

My mother packed a suitcase of clothing and I packed a small suitcase of items that were dear to me. I took some notebooks, pencils, coloring pencils and some other nick knacks that were precious to me. One evening, my brother Shalom took me to my new family. I cried all the way while my brother talked to me about behaving nicely to the family members and to be obedient and respectful. The separation was very difficult and painful. My brother tried his best at soothing my feelings by stating that the family would always be in touch and visit me at the new home. As to my question about why I had to leave the house, there was no immediate answer. Shalom merely said that the family selected a nice and safe place for me where I would be treated as a member of the family. His words gave me some confidence and I ceased crying. We then entered the new home and I was greeted warmly.

I saw a grandmother, a grandfather and a young couple who would be my new parents. The couple had no children of their own; thus perhaps the incentive to adopt a child and the joy of seeing me in their home. Of course, I was very sad since I was left alone when my brother left. The new family named me Basia (typical Polish Christian name). I cried the entire first night and was unable to fall asleep. I had a hard time adjusting to the idea that I was left alone with a new and strange family. No longer would I be able to rejoin my dear and beloved family. I rose early in the morning and went to the yard. I approached the gate and looked at the path that we used the previous night, but nobody was in sight.

I stood there and cried, hoping to see a familiar face, but no one appeared. I continued to stand or sit there for hours each day in the hope of seeing someone from the family, but in vain. I was depressed and entered the home only when grandfather called me to eat but I had no appetite. Grandmother understood the situation and tried to alleviate my fears by saying that my old family would probably visit me during the day or tomorrow. This of course did not alleviate my depressed feelings but it showed me that someone cared. Needless to say, I was very happy when a member of the family visited and brought a gift from the old home. They always promised to visit me as often as they could to cheer me up, for they saw my red and swollen eyes. They tried to visit often and indeed everybody visited me except my brother Avraham. He went to buy bread and disappeared, never to be seen again. The visits always ended in sadness for I was left alone with my depressed feelings

Suddenly my family stopped visiting me. It seemed like it vanished from the face of the earth. The year was 1943 and indeed some members of the family were caught by the Germans and killed while others were no longer in the city. I had the feeling that I would never see my dearly beloved family. At night I dreamed that my family visited me and was very happy, but on awakening I realized that it was a mere dream. I slowly became attached to the new family and became more familiar with them. They worried about me and were constantly fearful that an informer might reveal my existence to the Germans. The home of the new family was located in a rural area in the vicinity of the airport of Krosno. Still there was fear that someone might spot this young girl in the courtyard. The Krukierek family decided that the risks of being exposed were serious and took the necessary steps. They began to shift my hiding places. Sometimes I slept hidden in a straw bed in the attic. Others times I was hidden in dark places that affected my vision on seeing light.

On nice evenings, I would emerge and play a bit in the wheat field. Some evenings, grandmother would give me a basket and send me to pick potatoes. I dug the potatoes by hand in the dark so that no one would see me. I picked the big ones and left the small ones in the ground so that they would continue to grow, as grandmother Veronika instructed me to do. I would return with a basket full of potatoes and then clean them before entering the kitchen. Grandfather was pleased with the work and would always say that I earned my keep for the day and would give me an extra heavy slice of bread. I was very proud of my achievements and accepted wholeheartedly these compliments.

Grandfather was rather economical with his compliments; thus I relished them when I received one. Potatoes and cabbage was the standard food of the day for the family. Sunday was a special menu that consisted of potatoes, cabbage and rabbit meat. The latter were raised on the farm next to the cows and roosters. At night I picked potatoes and during the day I tended to the daily house chores. I always volunteered to do extra chores in order to ingratiate myself with the family. The fear of being rejected was always on my mind. I spent a great deal of time peeling potatoes and when I did a good job, I received a slice of bread. I did all the chores with devotion for I craved attention. I wanted to be accepted. Thus, I was very busy in the house, for grandfather had a leg injury and limped, while grandmother was weak and tired easily. The young couple left for work early in the morning and returned home late at night.

In addition to the regular house chores, I also mended clothing, helped prepare the feed for the cows and did many other kinds of work in the house. Of course, there was less work during the winter when the fields were covered with snow and I spent my time in hiding in the cowshed. The weather was freezing. I spent my time talking to the rabbits and roosters. It seemed to me that they answered but I was not sure if I heard them. I was very lonely and continued to talk to the small animals for I had no friends.

This was a difficult period, for the Germans increased the intensity of their searches and my adopted family was seriously frightened by the new policy. They even considered throwing me out of the place. I was terrified and could not fall asleep for fear of winding up in the street. Grandmother cared a great deal for me and stated that she would assume full responsibility for my protection. Furthermore; she stated that she would leave the house if I were thrown out. Grandmother's threats worked and she saved me. She asked her son Kazek to hide me at the mill where he was a guard. The sawmill belonged to our family prior to the war but was now owned by a German named Schmidt, and Kazek watched the place. He built a hiding place and one night took me from the house in a bag of sawdust.

The hiding place was under a wooden floor amid sawdust. Kazek's brothers also worked at the mill. They all married and left the household. Only grandmother, grandfather, their married daughter, Jozefa, and myself lived in the house that was near the sawmill. Kazek brought me to the hiding place and gave me instructions how to behave during the day when the Polish workers tended to their jobs. He also showed me how to position myself in the hiding place so as not to arouse suspicions. I could not sit, move or turn in the dark hiding place. During the day it was still bearable but at night it was frightening. I kept dreaming about my killed parents and brothers. I had the premonition that they were all killed. I did not want to dream but could not help myself. The dreams continued and I always awakened to stark reality. Furthermore, rats occasionally promenaded on my body and I could not do a thing about it for there was no room for my hands to move. I was left with the terrible feeling of the creatures walking about me.

For several months I continued to sleep in sawdust under the wooden floor. Autumn was approaching and with it came the rains. Everything was wet and dreary. The cold weather became a reality. Still I had to stay in hiding during the day for fear of being spotted by a worker or by a customer who came to buy wood. Only at night could I slowly venture out As a result of my hiding position, I could barely walk. I was depressed and the thought of ending my life frequently crossed my mind but I was a coward. I did not divulge these thoughts to Kazek for fear of embarrassing him after all his efforts on my behalf.

Winter approached and the family decided to return me to the house. They still hid me here and there but within the house for it was bitter cold outside. I also became accustomed to my new Christian family and realized then that I would never return to Judaism. I no longer wanted to belong to the persecuted and humiliated Jewish people. Grandfather always told me that the Jewish people had always been persecuted throughout history. Even the Arabs were killing the Jews in Palestine. I heard and saw all these things. I saw how Jews were being persecuted while the Christian children played and had fun. I felt jealous and felt ashamed at having been born a Jew.

These thoughts persisted and became stronger as time passed. Suddenly, the roar of shells shook the entire area for we were near the Krosno airport. The Russians shelled the entire area prior to their advance and for several days the cannon fire could be heard and then silence. The area was liberated but nobody came to take me home. I started school for the first time in 1945 and was registered as a Christian student. I excelled in my studies since I devoted myself wholeheartedly to schoolwork. I was a very good student and easily made friends. I felt a certain compensation for all the years spent in terrible deprivation. I also decided to convert to Catholicism, the deed pleased the family and gave me further security at home.

A high-ranking Polish officer named Yehoshua Drucker appeared at our home during the winter of 1945. He was a representative of Rabbi Kahane, Jewish military chaplain of the Polish Army. His mission consisted of returning Jewish children hidden in Christian homes to the Jewish fold. He spoke to my new family and then to me about traveling to the Jewish orphanage in the city of Zabrze. I refused since I was determined then never to return to Judaism and abandon my Christian family that I now considered my own. I stood my ground and refused to budge.

My brother Avraham Akselrad survived the camps and slowly recovered from his poor medical condition. He soon became aware of the fact that his sister Berta had survived the war and lived with a Christian family in Krosno. He made his appearance in 1946 with Yeshua Drucker at our house. My brother, of course, knew the Krukierek family from before the war. They spoke to me about traveling to the Jewish orphanage in Zabrze but I refused. I was determined to stay with the family. I even refused to talk to them. I left the house and hid in the bushes until I was certain that they had left the house. Then I returned home and was furious at my brother for trying to separate me from my new family. Avraham Akselrad saw that he was getting nowhere and decided to seek legal redress since I was a minor. The court heard the case and forced me to stay with my brother at the orphanage in Zabrze for a period of two weeks. The family presented a huge bill of expenses for my upkeep during the war years to my brother. The bill had to be paid to the court as deposit in case I did not return to the family. My brother did not have the necessary cash but he assigned his share of the family property to the Krukierek family if I did not return to their house. My share was untouched since I was a minor. Then the court began to implement the decision.

The separation was very painful since I did not want to leave the family and travel to the orphanage. The family was also reluctant to let me go and stated that only parents could change the status. Furthermore, they told me not to worry and they would get me back one way or another. I left with the certainty that the family would retrieve me.

The orphanage was aware of the situation since I was not the only child retrieved from a Christian home. They kept us under strict surveillance. All my daily letters were never mailed nor did I receive letters from the family. Of course I knew the reason but could do nothing about it. Still I felt homesick for my family. The orphanage soon sent me with a transport of Jewish children to France where I remained for two years. I then arrived in 1948 to Israel. I was sent to the school named "Mikveh Israel" to study the Hebrew language. During the process I also adopted the Hebrew name of Batia that was close to my original birth name of Berta. I stopped using the Polish name Basia.I was drafted in 1950 and three years later I was married. I have two married sons and four grandchildren.

I continued to write to the Krukierek family and even maintain correspondence with the grandchildren and great grandchildren of the family. Jozefa died in 2002 at the age of 92. I assisted her with whatever I could. I continue to correspond with the younger members of the family that do not even know me. But it is important for me to maintain contact with my past.

Signed Batia Eisenstein Dated June 8 2008

William Leibner loosely translated the story written in Hebrew

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Awraham Akselrad

by William Leibner, Jerusalem, August 2010 Awraham Akselrad, the son of Bendet and Cila Akselrad was born in Domaradz, near Krosno Galicia, Poland on July 12, 1922. He was the third child in a family of five children. They lived in Krosno, although the family originated in Korczyna near Krosno. The father Bendet Akselrad was very involved in the Jewish community.

He suvived terrible experiences in the Shoa. He slowly recuperated from all these terrible experiences and went home to Poland to see if there were survivors. He soon discovered that his sister Batia is alive and lives with the Christian family that took her in during the war. Batia Akselrad left the Polish home and went to live at the orphanage of Zabrze where she would be close to her brother. Soon Batia left Poland with a transport of children to Palestine. Awraham left Poland and applied for entry to the USA. He arrived in New York City on October 24th 1949. Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society told him that his papers of admission were conditional on his settling in Galveston, Texas. Awraham was not anxious to go to Texas but had no choice in the matter. He headed via Chicago to Galveston Texas where he arrived on October 26th 1949. He was met by a representative who helped him to settle down. Here he started to work as a tailor and received his social security number. 457-48-6753. He later moved to NY where he was naturalized on March 25th 1955. He visited Israel several times and saw his sister. He died of heart complications on January 22, 1991 in NYC.

William Leibner

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Trees to be Added: Genealogy

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