The History of Kovel as Posted on the City's Official Website
Kovel - one of the oldest cities of Volhynia. Archaeological excavations prove the existence of settlements is copper-rock era (the mid third millennium BC) is evidence of various rich and long history of Kovel, in particular cream `Yana axes, spears, sickles, which were restored at the time Kovelschyni . In those ancient times Volyn vkryvalasya human settlements, or "parking". Typically, our ancestors settled in the protected areas, near water. A. Tsynkalovskyy researching first settlements in the Volyn region, stressed that where put Kovel found many fireplace tools, and bronze spearhead, Roman coins. Easy to guess why among wetlands in forest settled ancient people, which eventually grew the city. The nature has created a protective structure of the enemies. Resourcefulness, ancient architect Perst left indicate where vykopaty deep defensive ditch, and dug through the earth to raise the plane settlement above sea level.
According to ancient legend, the first settler in the local area was a craftsman - blacksmith, and village where he lived, called Kovle. Over time, this word in modern transformuvalos name - Kovel.
At the head of the city here at the time were such historic figures as princes Sanguszko, Queen Bona, Prince Andrew Kurbskyy and many other famous figures.
In medieval arms Kovel alongside other heraldic attributes - the contours of the castle towers and a horseshoe - the ancient symbol of happiness and prosperity. These images correspond to a sample of reality. Unfortunately, traces of an ancient castle not preserved. The historians argue that Kovel was protected fortified castle with several towers and gates, which are likely to be located on the island, surrounded by the river and its tributaries Tour. Around the castle, and later formed the city center, where oselyalas know, artisans, nobles. Kovelchany were wise men. Castle had hydrological structures that held water, which fell to the big wheels and krutyla flour mechanism. This building served both a protective function, and economic - used as a mill. Old memorial yatayut this castle for transfers, which states that it was destroyed by fire. Escaped from a fire gate and tower, as the last witness Kovel Castle prostoyali to 1805 were destroyed by order of the Russian general, Count Sergei Kamensky.
Through the eastern gate and the bridge was out on the causeway, which prolyahala to the streets in the direction of Lutsk. At the dam were arranged wine cellars, which are tangible income to city coffers and the castle. Wooden gateways maintain a desired water level, which, falling, krutyla wheel mills.
In 1518 in his letter to Polish King Sihizmund So Prince Vassily Sanguszko form of the village Kovle city from granting him Mahdeburhskoho law. It began to be fair and tender, zaprovadzhuvalos internal self-government. It was in 1518 a long time considered the first written mention of the city. Later it was restored entry, dated 1310 year of birth of the Polish King Casimir the Great. And in 2004 it became clear that this date is another city that has a similar historical fate. This Polish city Koval, Vlotslavskoho county. It was not in Kovel was born to Polish King Casimir the Great. Proof of this fact have historical material brought kraevedom Anatoliy Koval Sulikom of the city. Over 100 years kovelchany believed his story of another town. The first date in 1310 as the first written mention of Kovel, found in the publication in 1897 "Zhyvopysnaya Russia (St. Petersburg). This historical error can be explained with the names of both cities (old name Koval - Koval and Kovel - Kovlye) and the similarity of geographical and historical data. For example, west of Koval is the city of Brest-Kujawsko from Kovel in the same direction is also Brest-Litovsk, as it was called in ancient times. And Koval, Kovel and were based on the islands in marshes and rivers.
In 1543 the town passed to the management Kovelsky old who cared about his development, were administered the royal revenue, did the court and the massacre of peasants and noblemen.
Based economy of the city was small commodity production, which provide the needs of the local market.
In the XVIII century Kovel was considerable craft and trade center of Volyn, which established commodity-money relations. After the third division of Poland Kovel became a district town in Russia.
The rapid economic development of the city accounted for the second half of the nineteenth century. Reform of 1861 provides the impetus for new growth. Laid the first railroad through the Kyiv-Brest Kovel (1873r.), developing industry, several times growing population. Kovel becomes third-biggest in the Volyn province after the city of Zhytomyr and Rivne.
In 1907 built a new railway station designed by the famous architect Alexander Verbitsky. Kilkapoverhovi build houses, some of them still remained in the city center.
In the early twentieth century. opened a lot of hotels. There are tobacco factory, wine storage, printing, bookstore, railway dispensary, school, gymnasium. A five churches.
City rozbudovuyetsya and becomes more beautiful. Building and streets, gardens and squares, creativity and scientific discovery is the share of labor each kovelchanyna.
Our city, fertile land Kovelskaya, Ukraine and gave the world a majestic figure.
Kovelschyna was the cradle of many scholars, writers, artists whose names are famous not only Blue-eyed Wolin, and Ukraine. In this region were encouraged to create Shevchenko, Ivan Franko, P. Kulish, N. Starytsky, AM Lysenko, M. Drahomanov. It is here that materialized in the word Lesia Ukrainka Eternal dreams of people the will.
However, peaceful labor Kovel violate the First World War and Revolution. The city is tangible losses. Once in Poland, kovelchany edify him, despite the national political oppression and genocide against enslavement, and naturally come to the association of eastern Ukraine, as all Volynyane.
Very difficult test brought the Second World War. After four years of occupation Hitlerites killed 35 thousand civilians and POWs. Heroic Battle dismissal Kovel continued 127 days and nights, after which left ruins and popelyscha. Survived only a few houses. Kovelchany took over the reconstruction. Thanks to their selfless work in short periods resumed railways became the order processors, have been housing and other socio-cultural sphere.
Glory beautiful city with a high level of economic and socio-cultural development Kovel acquired in the second half of last century.
The main feature kovelchan has always been hard work. They build giant engineering Kovelsilmash, new processing facilities, including meat processing plant, dairy, bakery, plant food, furniture factory, garment factory, houses of culture, theaters.
History Kovel very multifaceted. It affects the Lithuanian-Russian administration and the rule of Rzeczpospolita, Czarist-Russian colonization and the Austro-Hungarian domination, Stalinist dictatorship and the Nazi occupation, communist-Soviet system and the formation of Ukraine's independence.
Since founding the city was rich in monuments of antiquity, architectural structures. Unfortunately, many of them destroyed in the flames of war. Valuable in architecture, especially in the historical sense, the decoration of the city is the former pharmacy Fridriksona (IHHst.), whose services are used Kosach, urban clinics (1910r.) Prominvestbank (poch. HHv.). They kept the elements of modern style and are of modern construction background. Currently, the city saved 24 of such buildings.
Quite difficult destiny spiritual holy city of Kovel. In the Orthodox churches to this day remained the Holy Resurrection Cathedral (1877r.), St. Michael Church (poch. HHv.) That are valuable architectural and artistic designs Volyn monumental architecture.
By the monuments of antiquity is building on ul.Nezavisimosti, 125. This former Jewish synagogue (ser.IHHst.). Despite some changes in the planning, the building remained a unique example of a constructive solution, retained the characteristic features of worship.
The oldest wooden house Kovel are the Roman Catholic Church of St. Anne (1771r.), brought from the village Vishenki village Rozhishchenskiy area. The unique shape is dvovezheva house that tend to more murovanu architecture. In Ukraine dvovezhevyh wooden church dated HVIIIst., Only two survived. One of them - in the city of Kovel. Among the securities in the architectural and artistic designs of sacral architecture is Michael Church (1903r.).
Echo of history and cultural heritage Kovel are 28 monuments under state protection. In particular, the city erected a monument to Bogdan Khmelnitsky (1954r.) Memorial Hall (1977r.) monument Lesi Ukrainians (1991), Monument to honor the memory of victims of the Second World War (1996), Stella memory ' ??? soldiers - internationalists (2001), the monument of Taras Shevchenko (2005). On the initiative of the religious communities of the city open house Panteleymon Great Cathedral of St. Dmitri Thessalonica. A Greek-Catholic Church Blessed Nicholas Charnetskoho. Continuing restoration work in the building of art galleries, one of the most interesting buildings city.
In the city historical museum stored and exhibited more than three thousand exhibits on the history of the city of Kovel.
Kovel today - a modern city and is known not only in our country but also abroad, powerful railway junction of Western Ukraine, which has great strategic importance for the state, connecting it with many European countries.
Kovel experienced ups and downs, reached bloom and stripped ruynuvavsya, but always rise to a unique beauty. Over the centuries the city remained with Ukrainian customs, traditions, culture, language ...
Copyright © 2009 Bruce Drake